Carbonation is an essential aspect of beer that sets it apart from other fermented beverages, such as wine or mead. Many home brewers opt for natural carbonation, which is a long process that can deliver somewhat variable results from batch to batch. Effective and adequate carbonation can make all the difference between a passable and an excellent beer because it significantly impacts mouthfeel, flavour, and aroma.
While a natural process, many homebrewers help the carbonation process by inserting Carbon dioxide gas into the liquid under high pressure. Beer obtains its flavour from hops, malt, and carbonation. Carbonation is the process of carbon dioxide dissolving within the liquid. It is a natural process that occurs during the fermentation process. When the yeast utilizes sugar, it produces alcohol and carbon dioxide. Brewers use an airlock or blowoff tube to release the CO2 during fermentation, so there needs to be a way to carbonate the homebrew once fermentation is finished. Many home brewers increase beer carbon dioxide content by inserting the said gas under high PSI (pressure). Carbonation is why most beers have a lot of fizzles and bubbles once the bottle is opened or dispensed from the keg, which gives you a nice head on your beer. (more info below)